Part 7: Other Changes

Showing information about app clients

It would be helpful to our users if we can show how they can use our app. If there are desktop and mobile clients that can used to access our service, we need to list them and present them. Let’s add this information to

from plinth.clients import validate

clients = validate([{
    'name': _('Transmission'),
    'platforms': [{
        'type': 'web',
        'url': '/transmission'

Since our app is a simple web application with no clients needed, we just list that. We need to include this into the main app view. In, add:

from .manifest import clients

clients = clients

In, add:

from plinth.modules import transmission

class TransmissionAppView(views.AppView):
    clients = transmission.clients

Writing a manual page

The description of app should provide basic information on what the app is about and how to use it. It is impractical, however, to explain everything about the app in a few short paragraphs. So, we need to write a page about the app in the FreedomBox manual. This page will be available to the users from within the FreedomBox web interface. To make this happen, let us write a manual page entry for our app in the FreedomBox Wiki and then provide a link to it from app page. In, add:

manual_page = 'Transmission'

Then, in, add:

from plinth.modules import transmission

class TransmissionAppView(views.AppView):
    manual_page = transmission.manual_page

Adding backup/restore functionality

Each app in FreedomBox needs to provide the ability to backup its configuration and data. Apart from providing durability to users’ data, this allows the user to migrate from one machine to another. FreedomBox framework provides a simple declarative mechanism to allow the app to be backed up and restored. In, add:

from plinth.modules.backups.api import validate as validate_backup

backup = validate_backup({
    'data': {
        'directories': ['/var/lib/transmission-daemon/.config']
    'secrets': {
        'files': ['/etc/transmission-daemon/settings.json']
    'services': ['transmission-daemon']

The data and secrets information specifies which list of files and directories FreedomBox framework needs to backup. The list of services specifies which daemons should be stopped during the backup process. In, add:

from .manifest import backup

Creating diagnostics

When the app does not work as expected, the user should know what is happening with the app. FreedomBox framework provides an API for running and showing diagnostics results. Most of the common diagnostic tests are implemented by the framework as part of the components used by an app. FreedomBox takes care of calling the diagnostics method and displaying the list in a formatted manner.

To implement additional diagnostic tests on top of those provided by the framework, the method has to be overridden or in a component that belongs to the app, the method has to be overridden. The methods must return a list in which each item is the result of a test performed. The item itself is a two-tuple containing the display name of the test followed by the result as passed, failed or error.

class TransmissionAppView(views.AppView):
    def diagnose():
        """Run diagnostics and return the results."""
        results = super().diagnose()

        results.append(['Example test', 'passed'])

        return results

The user can trigger the diagnostics test by going to System -> Diagnostics page. This runs diagnostics for all the applications. Users can also run diagnostics specifically for this app from the app’s page. A diagnostics menu item is shown by the plinth.views.AppView and app.html template automatically when diagnose() method is overridden in the app or a component.


Sometimes we may feel the need to write some debug messages to the console and system logs. Doing this in FreedomBox is just like doing this any other Python application.

import logging

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

def example_method():
    logger.debug('A debug level message')'Showing application page - %s', request.method)

    except Exception as exception:
        # Print stack trace
        logger.exception('Encountered an exception - %s', exception)

For more information see Python logging framework documentation.


Every string message that is visible to the user must be localized to user’s native language. For this to happen, our app needs to be internationalized. This requires marking the user visible messages for translation. FreedomBox apps use the Django’s localization methods to make that happen.

from django.utils.translation import ugettext_lazy as _

name = _('Transmission')

short_description = _('BitTorrent Web Client')

description = [
    _('BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol. '
      'Transmission daemon handles Bitorrent file sharing.  Note that '
      'BitTorrent is not anonymous.'),
    _('Access the web interface at <a href="/transmission">/transmission</a>.')

Notice that the app’s name, description, etc. are wrapped in the _() method call. This needs to be done for the rest of our app. We use the ugettext_lazy in some cases and we use the regular ugettext in other cases. This is because in the second case the gettext lookup is made once and reused for every user looking at the interface. These users may each have a different language set for their interface. Lookup made for one language for a user should not be used for other users. The _lazy methods provided by Django makes sure that the return value is an object that will actually be converted to string at the final moment when the string is being displayed. In the first case, the lookup is made and string is returned immediately.

All of this is the usual way internationalization is done in Django. See Internationalization and localization documentation for more information.