Source code for plinth.actions

# SPDX-License-Identifier: AGPL-3.0-or-later
"""Run specified actions.

Actions run commands with this contract (version 1.1):

1. (promise) Super-user actions run as root.  Normal actions do not.

2. (promise) The actions directory can't be changed at run time.

   This guarantees that we can only select from the correct set of actions.

3. (restriction) Only whitelisted actions can run.

   A. Scripts in a directory above the actions directory can't be run.

      Arguments (and options) can't coerce the system to run actions in
      directories above the actions directory.

      Arguments that fail this validation will raise a ValueError.

   B. Scripts in a directory beneath the actions directory can't be run.

      Arguments (and options) can't coerce the system to run actions in
      sub-directories of the actions directory.

      (An important side-effect of this is that the system will not try to
       follow symlinks to other action directories.)

      Arguments that fail this validation will raise a ValueError.

   C. Only one action can be called at a time.

      This prevents us from appending multiple (unexpected) actions to
      the call.  Any special shell characters in the action name will
      simply be treated as the action itself when trying to search for
      an action.  The action will then not be found.

      $ action="echo '$options'; echo 'oops'"
      $ options="hi"
      $ $action # oops, the file system is gone!

      Arguments that fail this validation will raise a ValueError.

   D. Options can't be used to run other actions:

      $ action="echo '$options'"
      $ options="hi'; rm -rf /;'"
      $ $action # oops, the file system is gone!

      Any option that tries to include special shell characters will
      simply be treated as an option with special characters and will
      not be interpreted by the shell.

      Any call wishing to include special shell characters in options
      list does not need to escape them.  They are taken care of.  The
      option string is passed to the action exactly as it is passed in.

   E. Actions must exist in the actions directory.

4. (promise) Options are passed as arguments to the action.

   Options can be provided as a list or as a tuple.

5. (promise) Output is returned from the command.  In case of an
   error, ActionError is raised with action, output and error strings
   as arguments.

6. (limitation) Providing the process with input is not possible.

   Don't expect to give the process additional input after it's started.  Any
   interaction with the spawned process must be carried out through some other
   method (maybe the process opens a socket, or something).

7. Option

"""

import logging
import os
import re
import shlex
import subprocess

from plinth import cfg
from plinth.errors import ActionError

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


[docs]def run(action, options=None, input=None, run_in_background=False): """Safely run a specific action as the current user. See actions._run for more information. """ return _run(action, options, input, run_in_background, False)
[docs]def superuser_run(action, options=None, input=None, run_in_background=False, log_error=True): """Safely run a specific action as root. See actions._run for more information. """ return _run(action, options, input, run_in_background, True, log_error=log_error)
[docs]def run_as_user(action, options=None, input=None, run_in_background=False, become_user=None): """Run a command as a different user. If become_user is None, run as current user. """ return _run(action, options, input, run_in_background, False, become_user)
[docs]def _run(action, options=None, input=None, run_in_background=False, run_as_root=False, become_user=None, log_error=True): """Safely run a specific action as a normal user or root. Actions are pulled from the actions directory. - options are added to the action command. - input: data (as bytes) that will be sent to the action command's stdin. - run_in_background: run asynchronously or wait for the command to complete. - run_as_root: execute the command through sudo. """ if options is None: options = [] # Contract 3A and 3B: don't call anything outside of the actions directory. if os.sep in action: raise ValueError('Action cannot contain: ' + os.sep) cmd = os.path.join(cfg.actions_dir, action) if not os.path.realpath(cmd).startswith(cfg.actions_dir): raise ValueError('Action has to be in directory %s' % cfg.actions_dir) # Contract 3C: interpret shell escape sequences as literal file names. # Contract 3E: fail if the action doesn't exist or exists elsewhere. if not os.access(cmd, os.F_OK): raise ValueError('Action must exist in action directory.') cmd = [cmd] # Contract: 3C, 3D: don't allow shell special characters in # options be interpreted by the shell. When using # subprocess.Popen with list invocation and not shell invocation, # escaping is unnecessary as each argument is passed directly to # the command and not parsed by a shell. if options: if not isinstance(options, (list, tuple)): raise ValueError('Options must be list or tuple.') cmd += list(options) # No escaping necessary # Contract 1: commands can run via sudo. sudo_call = [] if run_as_root: sudo_call = ['sudo', '-n'] elif become_user: sudo_call = ['sudo', '-n', '-u', become_user] if cfg.develop and sudo_call: # Passing 'env' does not work with sudo, so append the PYTHONPATH # as part of the command sudo_call += ['PYTHONPATH=%s' % cfg.file_root] if sudo_call: cmd = sudo_call + cmd _log_command(cmd) # Contract 3C: don't interpret shell escape sequences. # Contract 5 (and 6-ish). kwargs = { 'stdin': subprocess.PIPE, 'stdout': subprocess.PIPE, 'stderr': subprocess.PIPE, 'shell': False, } if cfg.develop: # In development mode pass on local pythonpath to access Plinth kwargs['env'] = {'PYTHONPATH': cfg.file_root} proc = subprocess.Popen(cmd, **kwargs) if not run_in_background: output, error = proc.communicate(input=input) output, error = output.decode(), error.decode() if proc.returncode != 0: if log_error: logger.error('Error executing command - %s, %s, %s', cmd, output, error) raise ActionError(action, output, error) return output return proc
def _log_command(cmd): """Log a command with special pretty formatting to catch the eye.""" cmd = list(cmd) # Make a copy of the command not to affect the original prompt = '$' user = '' if cmd and cmd[0] == 'sudo': cmd = cmd[1:] prompt = '#' # Drop -n argument to sudo if cmd and cmd[0] == '-n': cmd = cmd[1:] # Capture username separately if len(cmd) > 1 and cmd[0] == '-u': prompt = '$' user = cmd[1] cmd = cmd[2:] # Drop environmental variables set via sudo while cmd and re.match(r'.*=.*', cmd[0]): cmd = cmd[1:] # Strip the command's prefix if cmd: cmd[0] = cmd[0].split('/')[-1] # Shell escape and join command arguments cmd = ' '.join([shlex.quote(part) for part in cmd]) logger.info('%s%s %s', user, prompt, cmd)